Risk management begins with an understanding of risk and return. We’ll recap how risk and return are related to each other, identify risk factors, and use them to re-acquaint ourselves with Modern Portfolio Theory applied to the global financial crisis of 2007-2008.
Now it’s time to expand your portfolio optimization toolkit with risk measures such as Value at Risk (VaR) and Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR). To do this you will use specialized Python libraries including pandas, scipy, and pypfopt. You’ll also learn how to mitigate risk exposure using the Black-Scholes model to hedge an options portfolio.
In this chapter, you’ll estimate risk measures using parametric estimation and historical real-world data. You'll then discover how Monte Carlo simulation can help you predict uncertainty. Lastly, you’ll learn how the global financial crisis signaled that randomness itself was changing, by understanding structural breaks and how to identify them.
It's time to explore more general risk management tools. These advanced techniques are pivotal when attempting to understand extreme events, such as losses incurred during the financial crisis, and complicated loss distributions which may defy traditional estimation techniques. You’ll also discover how neural networks can be implemented to approximate loss distributions and conduct real-time portfolio optimization.